# Appendix D Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation

In this glossary, key symbols and notation are briefly defined.

Symbol Definition
$latex \overline{\text{any symbol}}$ average (indicated by a bar over a symbol—e.g., $latex \bar{v}$ is average velocity)
$latex ^{\circ} \text{C}$ Celsius degree
$latex ^{\circ} \text{F}$ Fahrenheit degree
$latex //$ parallel
$latex \bot$ perpendicular
$latex \propto$ proportional to
$latex \pm$ plus or minus
$latex _0$ zero as a subscript denotes an initial value
$latex \alpha$ alpha rays
$latex \alpha$ angular acceleration
$latex \alpha$ temperature coefficient(s) of resistivity
$latex \beta$ beta rays
$latex \beta$ sound level
$latex \beta$ volume coefficient of expansion
$latex \beta ^{-}$ electron emitted in nuclear beta decay
$latex \beta ^{+}$ positron decay
$latex \gamma$ gamma rays
$latex \gamma$ surface tension
$latex \gamma = 1/ \sqrt{1 – v^2 / c^2}$ a constant used in relativity
$latex \Delta$ change in whatever quantity follows
$latex \delta$ uncertainty in whatever quantity follows
$latex \mathit\Delta E$ change in energy between the initial and final orbits of an electron in an atom
$latex \mathit\Delta E$ uncertainty in energy
$latex \mathit\Delta m$ difference in mass between initial and final products
$latex \mathit\Delta N$ number of decays that occur
$latex \mathit\Delta p$ change in momentum
$latex \mathit\Delta p$ uncertainty in momentum
$latex \mathit\Delta \text{PE}_{\text{g}}$ change in gravitational potential energy
$latex \mathit\Delta \theta$ rotation angle
$latex \mathit\Delta s$ distance traveled along a circular path
$latex \mathit\Delta t$ uncertainty in time
$latex \mathit\Delta t_0$ proper time as measured by an observer at rest relative to the process
$latex \mathit\Delta V$ potential difference
$latex \mathit\Delta x$ uncertainty in position
$latex \epsilon _0$ permittivity of free space
$latex \eta$ viscosity
$latex \theta$ angle between the force vector and the displacement vector
$latex \theta$ angle between two lines
$latex \theta$ contact angle
$latex \theta$ direction of the resultant
$latex \theta _b$ Brewster’s angle
$latex \theta _c$ critical angle
$latex \kappa$ dielectric constant
$latex \lambda$ decay constant of a nuclide
$latex \lambda$ wavelength
$latex \lambda _n$ wavelength in a medium
$latex \mu _0$ permeability of free space
$latex \mu _k$ coefficient of kinetic friction
$latex \mu _s$ coefficient of static friction
$latex v_e$ electron neutrino
$latex \pi ^+$ positive pion
$latex \pi ^-$ negative pion
$latex \pi ^0$ neutral pion
$latex \rho$ density
$latex \rho _{\text{c}}$ critical density, the density needed to just halt universal expansion
$latex \rho _{\text{fl}}$ fluid density
$latex \overline{\rho} _{\text{obj}}$ average density of an object
$latex \rho / \rho _{\text{w}}$ specific gravity
$latex \tau$ characteristic time constant for a resistance and inductance ($latex RL$) or resistance and capacitance ($latex RC$) circuit
$latex \tau$ characteristic time for a resistor and capacitor ($latex RC$) circuit
$latex \tau$ torque
$latex \Upsilon$ upsilon meson
$latex \Phi$ magnetic flux
$latex \phi$ phase angle
$latex \Omega$ ohm (unit)
$latex \omega$ angular velocity
$latex \text{A}$ ampere (current unit)
$latex A$ area
$latex A$ cross-sectional area
$latex A$ total number of nucleons
$latex a$ acceleration
$latex a_{\text{B}}$ Bohr radius
$latex a_{\text{c}}$ centripetal acceleration
$latex a_{\text{t}}$ tangential acceleration
$latex \text{AC}$ alternating current
$latex \text{AM}$ amplitude modulation
$latex \text{atm}$ atmosphere
$latex B$ baryon number
$latex B$ blue quark color
$latex \overline{B}$ antiblue (yellow) antiquark color
$latex b$ quark flavor bottom or beauty
$latex B$ bulk modulus
$latex B$ magnetic field strength
$latex B_{\text{int}}$ electron’s intrinsic magnetic field
$latex B_{\text{orb}}$ orbital magnetic field
$latex \text{BE}$ binding energy of a nucleus—it is the energy required to completely disassemble it into separate protons and neutrons
$latex \text{BE/A}$ binding energy per nucleon
$latex \text{Bq}$ becquerel—one decay per second
$latex C$ capacitance (amount of charge stored per volt)
$latex C$ coulomb (a fundamental SI unit of charge)
$latex C_{\text{p}}$ total capacitance in parallel
$latex C_{\text{s}}$ total capacitance in series
$latex \text{CG}$ center of gravity
$latex \text{CM}$ center of mass
$latex c$ quark flavor charm
$latex c$ specific heat
$latex c$ speed of light
$latex \text{Cal}$ kilocalorie
$latex \text{cal}$ calorie
$latex \textit{\text{COP}}_{\text{hp}}$ heat pump’s coefficient of performance
$latex \textit{\text{COP}}_{\text{ref}}$ coefficient of performance for refrigerators and air conditioners
$latex \text{cos} \theta$ cosine
$latex \text{cot} \theta$ cotangent
$latex \text{csc} \theta$ cosecant
$latex D$ diffusion constant
$latex d$ displacement
$latex d$ quark flavor down
$latex \text{dB}$ decibel
$latex d_i$ distance of an image from the center of a lens
$latex d_o$ distance of an object from the center of a lens
$latex \text{DC}$ direct current
$latex E$ electric field strength
$latex \epsilon$ emf (voltage) or Hall electromotive force
$latex \text{emf}$ electromotive force
$latex E$ energy of a single photon
$latex E$ nuclear reaction energy
$latex E$ relativistic total energy
$latex E$ total energy
$latex E_0$ ground state energy for hydrogen
$latex E_0$ rest energy
$latex \text{EC}$ electron capture
$latex E_{\text{cap}}$ energy stored in a capacitor
$latex \textit{\text{Eff}}$ efficiency—the useful work output divided by the energy input
$latex \textit{\text{Eff}}_{\textit{\text{C}}}$ Carnot efficiency
$latex E_{\text{in}}$ energy consumed (food digested in humans)
$latex E_{\text{ind}}$ energy stored in an inductor
$latex E_{\text{out}}$ energy output
$latex e$ emissivity of an object
$latex e^+$ antielectron or positron
$latex \text{eV}$ electron volt
$latex \text{F}$ farad (unit of capacitance, a coulomb per volt)
$latex \text{F}$ focal point of a lens
$latex \textbf{\text{F}}$ force
$latex F$ magnitude of a force
$latex F$ restoring force
$latex F_{\text{B}}$ buoyant force
$latex F_{\text{c}}$ centripetal force
$latex F_{\text{i}}$ force input
$latex \textbf{F}_{\text{net}}$ net force
$latex F_{\text{o}}$ force output
$latex \text{FM}$ frequency modulation
$latex f$ focal length
$latex f$ frequency
$latex f_0$ resonant frequency of a resistance, inductance, and capacitance ($latex RLC$) series circuit
$latex f_0$ threshold frequency for a particular material (photoelectric effect)
$latex f_1$ fundamental
$latex f_2$ first overtone
$latex f_3$ second overtone
$latex f_{\text{B}}$ beat frequency
$latex f_{\text{k}}$ magnitude of kinetic friction
$latex f_{\text{s}}$ magnitude of static friction
$latex G$ gravitational constant
$latex G$ green quark color
$latex \overline{G}$ antigreen (magenta) antiquark color
$latex g$ acceleration due to gravity
$latex g$ gluons (carrier particles for strong nuclear force)
$latex h$ change in vertical position
$latex h$ height above some reference point
$latex h$ maximum height of a projectile
$latex h$ Planck’s constant
$latex hf$ photon energy
$latex h_i$ height of the image
$latex h_o$ height of the object
$latex I$ electric current
$latex I$ intensity
$latex I$ intensity of a transmitted wave
$latex I$ moment of inertia (also called rotational inertia)
$latex I_0$ intensity of a polarized wave before passing through a filter
$latex I_{\text{ave}}$ average intensity for a continuous sinusoidal electromagnetic wave
$latex I_{\text{rms}}$ average current
$latex J$ joule
$latex J / \psi$ Joules/psi meson
$latex \text{K}$ kelvin
$latex k$ Boltzmann constant
$latex k$ force constant of a spring
$latex K_{\alpha}$ x rays created when an electron falls into an $latex n = 1$ shell vacancy from the $latex n = 3$ shell
$latex K_{\beta}$ x rays created when an electron falls into an $latex n = 2$ shell vacancy from the $latex n = 3$ shell
$latex \text{kcal}$ kilocalorie
$latex \text{KE}$ translational kinetic energy
$latex \text{KE} + \text{PE}$ mechanical energy
$latex \text{KE}_e$ kinetic energy of an ejected electron
$latex \text{KE}_{\text{rel}}$ relativistic kinetic energy
$latex \text{KE}_{\text{rot}}$ rotational kinetic energy
$latex \overline{\text{KE}}$ thermal energy
$latex \text{kg}$ kilogram (a fundamental SI unit of mass)
$latex L$ angular momentum
$latex \text{L}$ liter
$latex L$ magnitude of angular momentum
$latex L$ self-inductance
$latex \ell$ angular momentum quantum number
$latex L_{\alpha}$ x rays created when an electron falls into an $latex n = 2$ shell from the $latex n = 3$ shell
$latex L_e$ electron total family number
$latex L_{\mu}$ muon family total number
$latex L_{\tau}$ tau family total number
$latex L_{\text{f}}$ heat of fusion
$latex L_{\text{f}}$ and $latex L_{\text{v}}$ latent heat coefficients
$latex L_{\text{orb}}$ orbital angular momentum
$latex L_{\text{s}}$ heat of sublimation
$latex L_{\text{v}}$ heat of vaporization
$latex L_z$ z – component of the angular momentum
$latex M$ angular magnification
$latex M$ mutual inductance
$latex \text{m}$ indicates metastable state
$latex m$ magnification
$latex m$ mass
$latex m$ mass of an object as measured by a person at rest relative to the object
$latex \text{m}$ meter (a fundamental SI unit of length)
$latex m$ order of interference
$latex m$ overall magnification (product of the individual magnifications)
$latex m(^AX)$ atomic mass of a nuclide
$latex \text{MA}$ mechanical advantage
$latex m_{\text{e}}$ magnification of the eyepiece
$latex m_e$ mass of the electron
$latex m_{\ell}$ angular momentum projection quantum number
$latex m_n$ mass of a neutron
$latex m_{\text{o}}$ magnification of the objective lens
$latex \text{mol}$ mole
$latex m_p$ mass of a proton
$latex m_{\text{s}}$ spin projection quantum number
$latex N$ magnitude of the normal force
$latex \text{N}$ newton
$latex \textbf{\text{N}}$ normal force
$latex N$ number of neutrons
$latex n$ index of refraction
$latex n$ number of free charges per unit volume
$latex N_A$ Avogadro’s number
$latex N_{\text{r}}$ Reynolds number
$latex \text{N} \cdot \text{m}$ newton-meter (work-energy unit)
$latex \text{N} \cdot \text{m}$ newtons times meters (SI unit of torque)
$latex \text{OE}$ other energy
$latex P$ power
$latex P$ power of a lens
$latex P$ pressure
$latex \textbf{\text{p}}$ momentum
$latex p$ momentum magnitude
$latex p$ relativistic momentum
$latex \textbf{\text{p}}_{\text{tot}}$ total momentum
$latex \textbf{\text{p}}^{\prime}_{\text{tot}}$ total momentum some time later
$latex p_{\text{abs}}$ absolute pressure
$latex p_{\text{atm}}$ atmospheric pressure
$latex p_{\text{atm}}$ standard atmospheric pressure
$latex \text{PE}$ potential energy
$latex \text{PE}_{el}$ elastic potential energy
$latex \text{PE}_{\text{elec}}$ electric potential energy
$latex \text{PE}_s$ potential energy of a spring
$latex P_g$ gauge pressure
$latex P_{in}$ power consumption or input
$latex P_{out}$ useful power output going into useful work or a desired, form of energy
$latex Q$ latent heat
$latex Q$ net heat transferred into a system
$latex Q$ flow rate—volume per unit time flowing past a point
$latex +Q$ positive charge
$latex -Q$ negative charge
$latex q$ electron charge
$latex q_p$ charge of a proton
$latex q$ test charge
$latex \text{QF}$ quality factor
$latex R$ activity, the rate of decay
$latex R$ radius of curvature of a spherical mirror
$latex R$ red quark color
$latex \overline{R}$ antired (cyan) quark color
$latex R$ resistance
$latex \text{R}$ resultant or total displacement
$latex R$ Rydberg constant
$latex R$ universal gas constant
$latex r$ distance from pivot point to the point where a force is applied
$latex r$ internal resistance
$latex r_{\bot}$ perpendicular lever arm
$latex r$ radius of a nucleus
$latex r$ radius of curvature
$latex r$ resistivity
$latex \text{r or rad}$ radiation dose unit
$latex \text{rem}$ roentgen equivalent man
$latex \text{rad}$ radian
$latex \text{RBE}$ relative biological effectiveness
$latex RC$ resistor and capacitor circuit
$latex \text{rms}$ root mean square
$latex r_n$ radius of the nth H-atom orbit
$latex R_p$ total resistance of a parallel connection
$latex R_s$ total resistance of a series connection
$latex R_s$ Schwarzschild radius
$latex S$ entropy
$latex \textbf{\text{S}}$ intrinsic spin (intrinsic angular momentum)
$latex S$ magnitude of the intrinsic (internal) spin angular momentum
$latex S$ shear modulus
$latex S$ strangeness quantum number
$latex s$ quark flavor strange
$latex \text{s}$ second (fundamental SI unit of time)
$latex s$ spin quantum number
$latex \textbf{\text{s}}$ total displacement
$latex \text{sec} \theta$ secant
$latex \text{sin} \theta$ sine
$latex s_z$ z-component of spin angular momentum
$latex T$ period—time to complete one oscillation
$latex T$ temperature
$latex T_c$ critical temperature—temperature below which a material becomes a superconductor
$latex T$ tension
$latex \text{T}$ tesla (magnetic field strength B)
$latex t$ quark flavor top or truth
$latex t$ time
$latex t_{1/2}$ half-life—the time in which half of the original nuclei decay
$latex \text{tan} \theta$ tangent
$latex U$ internal energy
$latex u$ quark flavor up
$latex \text{u}$ unified atomic mass unit
$latex \textbf{\text{u}}$ velocity of an object relative to an observer
$latex \textbf{\text{u}}^{\prime}$ velocity relative to another observer
$latex V$ electric potential
$latex V$ terminal voltage
$latex \text{V}$ volt (unit)
$latex V$ volume
$latex \textbf{\text{v}}$ relative velocity between two observers
$latex v$ speed of light in a material
$latex \textbf{\text{v}}$ velocity
$latex \overline{\textbf{\text{v}}}$ average fluid velocity
$latex V_B – V_A$ change in potential
$latex \textbf{\text{v}}_d$ drift velocity
$latex V_p$ transformer input voltage
$latex V_{\text{rms}}$ rms voltage
$latex V_s$ transformer output voltage
$latex \textbf{\text{v}}_{\text{tot}}$ total velocity
$latex v_{\text{w}}$ propagation speed of sound or other wave
$latex \textbf{\text{v}}_{\text{w}}$ wave velocity
$latex W$ work
$latex W$ net work done by a system
$latex \text{W}$ watt
$latex w$ weight
$latex w_{\text{fl}}$ weight of the fluid displaced by an object
$latex W_c$ total work done by all conservative forces
$latex W_{nc}$ total work done by all nonconservative forces
$latex W_{out}$ useful work output
$latex X$ amplitude
$latex \text{X}$ symbol for an element
$latex \begin{matrix} Z \\ A \end{matrix} K_N$ notation for a particular nuclide
$latex x$ deformation or displacement from equilibrium
$latex x$ displacement of a spring from its undeformed position
$latex x$ horizontal axis
$latex X_C$ capacitive reactance
$latex X_L$ inductive reactance
$latex x_{\text{rms}}$ root mean square diffusion distance
$latex y$ vertical axis
$latex Y$ elastic modulus or Young’s modulus
$latex Z$ atomic number (number of protons in a nucleus)
$latex Z$ impedance